Virtual Private network

In the present day business settings, there is an increasing demand to connect to internal corporation networks from various places (Natarajan, Muthiah, &Nachiappan, 2010). It is a common want that personnel hook up with private networks thru the internet from domestic, subject stations, or whilst on transit in the airport, or external networks. The nature of the net is insecure (Stewart, 2013; Lim et al., 2001). Hence, protection is the major trouble of subject to organizations while employees, customers, and enterprise companions have frequent connections to inner networks from remote places. Virtual personal networks provide a generation that protects that records being transferred thru the internet. VPNs permit customers to set a digital personal tunnel via which to get admission to statistics, resources, and communications in inner networks through the internet (Paul, 2000). This essay presents an overview of VPN and the core tunneling protocols used to enhance safety, with a focal point on Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol.


Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a form of private community that utilizes public telecommunication, which include the net, instead of leased traces, to talk (Natarajan, Muthiah, &Nachiappan, 2010). Virtual personal networks became popular with the increase in the number of employees running in faraway locations. Virtual way no longer physically-gift, personal approach now not public, which community is a device of electronic communique among  or extra devices. The internet is the spine for digital non-public networks. The motivating elements for the advent of VPNs by using firms are that digital private networks save expenses fantastically and reduce maintenance and device costs (Rubin, 2003). The  essential features of VPNs are safety and scalability. Modern digital personal networks triumph over threats to security through using unique tunneling protocols.

How VPNs Operate

Virtual non-public networks require an internet connection because the foundational platform for sharing assets, communications and information (Stewart, 2013). Virtual Private Network transmits statistics through a mechanism called tunneling. Prior to transmission, a packet wrapped or encapsulated in a new packet that has a new header. The header has routing facts that allows it to traverse a public or shared community amidst before accomplishing the endpoint of the tunnel. A tunnel is logical course or route through which encapsulated packets journey.

Packets are de-capsulated when they attain the endpoint of the tunnel, and are forwarded to the very last vacation spot (Stewart, 2013). The  tunnel endpoints must assist the identical tunneling protocol. Tunneling protocols run or operate at either of the layers of Open System Interconnection (OSI), i.E. Records-link (layer two) or network layer(layer 3). There are four normally used tunneling protocols, i.E. PPTP, IPsec, L2TP, and SSL. A packet that has a non-public non-routable IP address may be sent wrapped in a packet with globally unique IP address, therefore extending a non-public network over the internet.

In relation to security, VPN applies encryption to make certain the confidentiality of facts (Baron Verulam et al., 2002). The digital private network applies the tunneling mechanism to wrap or encapsulate encrypted information right into a comfy tunnel with open headers which have the capability to move public networks. Packets of information passed communicated thru a public community through this technique can not be examine with out right decryption keys. Hence, the mechanism guarantees that statistics isn't always modified or disclosed amid transit thru the public network.

Virtual personal networks additionally offer information integrity check (Stewart, 2013). Typically, the take a look at is performed in the shape of a message-digest that ensures that statistics has not been altered or tampered inside the technique of transmission. The default nature of digital private networks is that it does now not put in force or offer a strong person authentication. Hence, customers can use easy usernames and passwords to benefit access into internal networks from distinctive geographically dispersed locations or other networks. However, virtual non-public networks help add-on authentication together with tokens, smart cards, etc.

Deployment of VPNs

Enterprises and businesses deploy VPNs thru Remote Access VPN, Intranet VPN, Extranet VPN, or WAP Replacement(Sir Francis Bacon et al., 2002).

Remote Access VPN

Remote get admission to VPN is a person-to-community connection for the house or cellular consumer connecting to corporate networks from a far off vicinity. It permits encrypted connections among faraway users and corporate non-public community.

Intranet VPN

Intranet VPN is a connection amongst constant places. Intranet VPN is LAN-to-LAN VPN connection that joins remote locations inclusive of branch places of work right into a unmarried personal network. LAN stands for Local Area Network.

Extranet VPN

Extranet VPN is a type of connection that hyperlinks organizations partners along with customers and suppliers, permitting the exclusive events to work, communicate, or share information inside a shared environment.

WAN substitute

In WAN substitute, VPNs provide an option for Wide Area Networks (WAN)(1st Baron Verulam et al., 2002). However, maintaining WANs are steeply-priced, especially in cases wherein networks are dispersed geographically. The software of VPNs reduces expenses and removes administrative overhead. In addition, it gives progressed scalability in comparison to conventional private networks. However, the overall performance and reliability of networks can become a problem, specifically when connections and statistics are tunneled through the net.

Tunneling Protocols

Four tunneling technology are usually utilized in virtual non-public networks. For this discussion, sizable description is given for L2TP.

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol is an antique protocol that has largely been replaced with the aid of SSL/TSL and IPSec VPNs within the production environments (Stewart, 2013). However, the protocol may additionally still be in provider in certain environments in which backward compatibility may be an problem. Hence, it's far viable to come across it in the educational literature. L2TP become carried out extensively in conventional VPN answers however misplaced its reputation as different protocols have become extra usable as industry standards advanced. For the primary time, L2TP become covered in a Microsoft server product with the advent of Windows 2000 server (Ibid).

L2TP combines Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol and Layer 2 Forwarding (Popescu, 2010). L2TP can encapsulate PPP required to be despatched thru IP, ATM networks, or Frame Relay. In this protocol, more than one connections are allowed through one tunnel. In a similar way as PPTP and L2F, Layer-Two tunneling protocol operates on OSI layer . Layer two VPN protocols wrapped information in PPP frames and can transmit non-IP protocols via an IP community.

Layer- tunneling protocol applies the same mechanisms of authentication as PPP connections, along with PAP, EAP, and others (Francis Bacon et al., 2002). Tunneling that applies L2TP is found out via more than one degrees of encapsulation. PPP statistics is wrapped or encapsulated in an L2TP header and a PPP header (Stewart, 2013). The L2TP wrapped packet is additionally encapsulated within a UDP header with the source port and destination port set to 1701. The very last packet is wrapped with an IP header with the server and client’s supply and destination IP addresses (1st Baron Beaverbrook et al., 2002). There is constantly a loss of confidentiality with the usage of L2TP. L2TP most effective affords a mechanism for creating tunnels through IP network, however does no longer offer a mechanism for the encryption of data being channeled. Hence, L2TP is normally used together with IPSec and, subsequently, referred to as L2TP/IPSec. Security offerings are provided by way of IPSec, ESP, and AH, whilst L2TP is working over IPSec. L2TP information and controls seem as homogeneous data packets to the IPSec gadget.

It is rare to encounter L2TP in modern-day production environments (Stewart, 2013). However, the simple ideas of the protocol are crucial for knowledge the relative importance of the protocols not unusual in current environments and information digital networks in wellknown.
Other Tunneling Protocols

IPSec (Internet Protocol Security)

The Internet Engineering Task Force, IETF, created IPSec for at ease transfer of facts on the OSI layer three thru the net or other unprotected public IP networks (Popescu, 2010). IPSec allows a community to choose and negotiate the necessary security protocols, mystery keys, and algorithms to be applied. IPSec offers fundamental authentication, encryption, and information integrity to ensure unauthorized viewing or amendment of statistics. IPSec makes use of two security protocols, i.E. ESP (Encapsulated Security Payload) and AH (Authentication Header) for the necessary offerings. However, IPSec is restrained to sending only IP packets.

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol is an OSI layer-two protocol built on Point-Point Protocol (PPT) (Popescu, 2010). Point-to-Point protocol is a dial-up protocol that uses a couple of protocols to connect with the net. Users connecting to VPN from far flung locations can get right of entry to the net via PPTP. However, they have to first dial into the neighborhood ISP. PPTP permits a PPP consultation with protocols which are non-TCP/IP for tunneling via an IP community. The equal mechanism of authentication implemented for PPP connections is supported in the PPTP-based totally VPN connection.


Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a shipping layer protocol that applies Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port 443 (Popescu, 2010). IETF defines SSL protocol and its versions (Fall & Stevens, 2012). The standardized versions of SSL consist of TSL 1.Zero, TSL 1.1., and TSL 3.1, which is the same as SSL 3.1 (Viscount St. Albans et al., 2002). Versions of SSL do no longer move past SSL 3.1. SSL/TSL gives a selection of cryptographic features (Ibid). These features consist of integrity, confidentiality, and virtual signatures. Contrary to IPSec, in which the speaking parties conform to cryptographic capabilities, SSL/TSL applies cipher suites to set or define cryptographic functions for the server and customer to apply to talk.

SSN VPN gateways can self-authenticate to the internet consumer with the usage of an SSL server certificates signed by a reputable Certification Authority (CA), so as for the consumer to prove that the server she or he is communicating with via a browser is depended on (Stewart, 2013). In usual occasions, some SSL virtual non-public networks can also use a self-signed virtual certificates, that's trusted in maximum net browsers. In similar instances, users can upload the SSL virtual non-public network server certificate to their listing of depended on certificate.

Risks and Limitations of VPNs

Risks associated with the use of VPNs relate to virus or malware infections, consumer-side dangers, user authentication, and hacking attacks (publisher 1st baron verulam et al., 2002).

Hacking: Client machines can also grow to be objectives of attacks or staging factors for attacks from inside the staging community. Intruders can make the most incorrect configurations or insects in client machines, and different hacking equipment to launch different forms of attacks inclusive of VPN hijacking.

User authentication: VPN does now not enforce or offer authentication. The VPN connection is most effective established via the patron. Weak authentication ought to permit unauthorized parties to go into the related network.

Client-side risks: VPN client machines can be related to the internet through a broadband connection whilst, at the equal time, connected to a VPN connection to a non-public network, through split tunneling. Such connections pose risks to private networks involved.

Malware infections: A private network can be compromised if the consumer facet connecting to the community has malware, which might also motive leakage of the password for VPN connection.


Virtual Private Networks offer a mechanism to get entry to a secured private community through insecure public networks consisting of the net. The common VPN tunneling technology are IPSec, SSL, L2TP, and PPTP. The cognizance of this discussion became on L2TP. Although it's far feasible to open and tunnel a relaxed communique channel through insecure public networks, the security of the connection should not be unnoticed, specifically from the customer facet.
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